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Vitamin Chart :: Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms & Benefits

The vitamin chart below provides a quick reference guide to the functions of all vitamins, vitamin deficiency symptoms, and vitamin food sources.

Vitamin A · Vitamin B1 · Vitamin B2 · Vitamin B3 · Vitamin B5 · Vitamin B6 · Vitamin B12 · Vitamin C · Vitamin D · Vitamin E · Vitamin K · Vitamin P · Biotin · Choline · Folic Acid · Inositol · PABA · Coenzyme Q10 ·


Importance of Vitamins What Vitamins Should I Take
Vitamins are essential to health and growth, and prevention and cure of diseases.  They work synergestically together.  Most vitamins cannot be made by the body, and can only be obtained from food and supplements.

Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms vitamin deficiency symptoms
Deficiencies arise when there is lack of any vitamins. They usually develop slowly.  Symptoms can initially be so mild as to be undetectable.  When symptoms become obvious, health may have been affected for some time.



Vitamin Chart
Vitamin A | Retinol | Retinal | Beta-carotene | Vitamin A Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin A
Functions :: counteracts night blindness and weak eye sight; protects against common eye disorders such as cataracts; helps prevent macular degeneration of the eyes; promotes normal working of both male and female reproductive system; important in the development of bones and teeth; powerful antioxidant that protects against cardiovascular disease and cancer by neutralizing free radicals in cells; strengthens the immune system against colds, flu and infections; builds healthy skin and mucous linings that act as a protective barrier against viruses and bacteria; promotes healthy hair and nails; may prevent skin problems like acne, promote healthy wrinkle-free skin, and help remove age spots; slows the aging process (anti-aging).


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin A deficiency symptoms may include :: faulty teeth and slow bone formation; night blindness (see poorly in dim light); prolonged deficiency can cause xerophthalmia (dry eyes) which can ultimately lead to blindness; rough dry scaly skin; bumpy skin; increased susceptibility to colds and viral infections; sinusitis (chronic inflammation of the sinuses); frequent infections of the bladder or urinary tract; tendency to abcesses in the ears; rapid weight loss; loss of smell, taste or appetite.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin A are animal liver; fish liver oil.

Other Vitamin A food sources include eggs; milk; foods containing beta-carotene (which is converted to vitamin A in the liver) such as green and yellow vegetables like alfalfa, asparagus, beets, broccoli, chilli peppers, carrots, kale, mustard, spinach, spirulina, pumpkin and yellow squash, sweet potatoes, and reddish-yellow fruits like apricots, cantaloupe, mangoes, papaya, peaches.

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Vitamin B1 | Thiamine | Thiamin | Vitamin B1 Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin B1
Functions :: supports production of hydrochloric acid for the digestive system; critical for carbohydrate metabolism and energy production; optimizes brain function and learning capacity; promotes mental alertness and memory; fights depression; may be associated with reduced risk of cataracts; may slow the progression of atherosclerosis; needed for blood cell formation; crucial for a healthy nervous system; coordinates interaction of nerves and muscles; needed for normal muscle tone of the heart, stomach and intestines.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin B1 deficiency leads to beriberi, a condition characterized by :: excessive fatigue or muscular weakness; loss of appetite; vague aches and pains or tingling sensations; loss of sensation (numbness) in hands and legs; severe deficiency can cause nerve damage, leading to paralysis of the leg; heart abnormalities such as palpitations or enlarged heart; lung congestion and difficulty in breathing; gastrointestinal disorders such as indigestion or constipation; Crohn's disease; recurrent canker sores (aphthous or oral ulcers); stunted growth; forgetfulness or mental confusion; nervous irritability or mental depression; vague fears or feelings of persecution; severe deficiency can lead to brain damage and a form of dementia (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome).


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin B1 are mushrooms; sunflower seeds; tuna; vegetables such as asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, romaine lettuce, spinach, tomatoes.

Other Vitamin B1 food sources include animal liver; brewer's yeast; egg yolk; fish; lean meat (pork, poultry, beef); nuts; pulses like chickpeas, dhal, lentils, soybeans; raw rice bran; vegetables such as beans, beets, cauliflower, eggplant, green peas; wheat germ; whole grains and cereals such as unpolished rice and oatmeal.

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Vitamin B2 | Riboflavin | Vitamin B2 Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin B2
Functions :: important for healthy vision and to alleviate eye fatigue; may help prevent cataracts; key role in energy production; essential for growth and repair of all body tissues; maintains the mucous membranes of the digestive tract and around the lips, mouth and tongue; helps prevent migraine headaches; helps protect cells from free radical damage; required for production of antibodies; needed for red blood cell formation; needed for absorption of iron and vitamin B6; helps maintain levels of the other B vitamins in the body; helps to treat carpal tunnel syndrome; important for fetal development during pregnancy; helps reduce homocysteine levels in the body, and so lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin B2 deficiency symptoms may include :: dermatitis; peeling of skin around the nose; cracks or sores at corners of mouth or on lips; swollen or sore throat; shiny red-purple or inflamed or sore tongue; loss of sense of taste; loss of appetite; damage to the fetus during pregnancy; anemia / anaemia; nervousness or irritability or depression due to nerve damage; eyes that burn or itch or are bloodshot, or sensitive to bright light.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin B2 are animal liver; mushroom; spinach.

Other Vitamin B2 food sources include beans; chicken eggs; dairy products (cheese, milk, yogurt); fish; lean meat; vegetables such as asparagus, broccoli, brussel sprouts, chard, collard greens, mustard greens, romaine lettuce, turnip greens; venison.

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Vitamin B3 | Niacin | Niacinamide | Nicotinic acid | Niacin Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin B3
Functions :: important for conversion of food to energy; helps the functioning of the digestive system; required for production of hydrochloric acid for the digestive system; needed for production of genetic DNA in cells; promotes functioning of the nervous system; promotes healthy looking skin; may help treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD); niacinamide may prevent diabetes; high doses under medical supervision have been used to reduce LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and increase HDL or good cholesterol; helps to slow development of atherosclerosis and reduce risk of heart attack; niacinamide may be helpful in treating osteoarthritis; may protect against Alzheimer's disease and age-related mental decline.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Niacin deficiency symptoms may include :: most common symptoms are dry, cracked and scaly skin; pellagra, a condition characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia; feeling of lassitude or weariness; muscular weakness; loss of appetite; indigestion or gastrointestinal disturbances; depression, irritability, anxiety or confusion; severe deficiency can cause dementia.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin B3 are mushrooms; raw rice bran; tuna.

Other Vitamin B3 food sources include beef liver; brewer's yeast; chicken breast; corn flour; dairy products like cheese and milk; eggs; halibut; peanuts; lean pork; salmon; shrimp and scallops; sea vegetables; vegetables such as asparagus, broccoli, carrots, collard greens, green peas, mustard greens, romaine lettuce, tomatoes; turkey; venison; whole wheat.

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Vitamin B5 | Pantothenic Acid | Pantothenic Acid Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin B5
Functions :: constituent of coenzyme A (CoA) which is needed for many chemical processes in the body; important in production of adrenal hormones that help the body handle stress; needed for transmission of nerve impulses between nerve cells; important for production of hemoglobin; needed to convert carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy; required for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol; supports normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract; enables the body to utilize other vitamins and minerals; needed for formation of antibodies to ward off infections.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin B5 deficiency symptoms may include :: numbness and shooting or burning pains in the feet; chronic fatigue; depression or irritability or listlessness; rheumatoid arthritis; headaches; nausea; insomnia; abdominal cramps; increased susceptibility to colds or infections.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin B5 are animal liver; cauliflower; mushrooms; raw rice bran.

Other Vitamin B5 food sources include beans / legumes; beef; brewer's yeast; chicken; eggs; fresh vegetables such as broccoli, chard, collard greens, tomato, turnip greens, winter squash, yellow corn; grapefruit; pork; salt-water fish; shellfish; strawberries; sunflower seeds; whole grains; yogurt.

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Vitamin B6 | Pyridoxine | Vitamin B6 Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin B6
Functions :: helps the immune system produce antibodies to fight diseases; helps to break down fats and carbohydrates to produce energy; helps regulate blood sugar levels; needed for protein metabolism; essential for new cell formation and growth; promotes healthy skin and mucous membranes; needed for hemoglobin and red blood cell formation; important for normal nerve and brain function; may help treat depression; helps the body convert tryptophan to vitamin B3; reduces risk of heart attack or stroke by controlling blood levels of homocysteine; reduces symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS / PMT); may help prevent oxalate kidney stones in women; helps treat carpal tunnel syndrome.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin B6 deficiency symptoms may include :: skin disorders such as eczema or dermatitis ; cracks or sores on lips or mouth; inflammation of mucous membranes of the mouth or tongue; nerve related problems including convulsions and seizures; arm and leg cramps or numbness of hands and feet; irritability or mood abnormalities; depression; nausea or dizziness; migraine headaches; anemia / anaemia; chronic fatigue or muscle weakness; increased susceptibility to infections; asthma.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin B6 are bananas; bell peppers; chick peas; potatoes (baked with skin); prune juice; raw rice bran; turnip greens; spinach.

Other Vitamin B6 food sources include beans (garbanzo, soybeans, lima); brewer's yeast; eggs; chicken; garlic; fish like cod, halibut, snapper, trout, tuna; lean meat (calf liver, chicken breast, turkey breast, pork loin, beef, venison); nuts; sunflower seeds; turmeric powder; vegetables such as asparagus, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, chard, collard greens, kale, mustard greens, peas; walnuts; wheat germ; whole grains and whole grain products.

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Vitamin B12 | Cobalamin | Cyanocobalamin | Vitamin B12 Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin B12
Functions :: helps cells metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats ; essential for red blood cell formation; needed to make DNA (the genetic material in all cells); required for healthy nerve function; may help prevent cardiovascular disease; may be important for brain health, to prevent brain atrophy associated with Alzheimer's disease and age-related mental decline; may be effective, when taken with fish oil, in reducing triglycerides and cholesterol.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin B12 deficiency might lead to pernicious anemia, a condition characterized by :: pernicious anemia characterized by fatigue, weakness, diarrhea, weight loss, pale skin, sore red tongue or mouth; hypotension (low blood pressure); loss of appetite; nerve damage symptomized by tingling and numbness in the hands and feet, loss of balance, unsteady movement; heart palpitations; confusion, disorientation or hallucinations; irritability, depression, or other mood disturbances; memory loss or dementia; associated with Alzheimer's disease; dandruff; vision problems; higher blood levels of homocysteine which increases risk of heart attacks and strokes; associated with breast cancer; retarded growth, movement disorders and anemia in infants.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin B12 are animal liver; fish like cod, halibut, herring, mackerel, salmon, snapper, trout.

Other Vitamin B12 food sources include dairy products; egg yolk; kidney; meat (beef, lamb, pork, poultry, venison); seafood like clams, scallops and shrimp.

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Vitamin C | Ascorbic acid | Vitamin C Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin C
Functions :: important to the body's immune system in fighting against infections and illnesses; powerful antioxidant that protects against damage from toxic chemicals and pollutants, and from free radicals that are largely responsible for aging and degenerative diseases; helps prevent cancer by blocking formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines; needed to make collagen for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of the body; needed for healthy skin, teeth and gums, and bone development; essential for the healing of wounds; helps the body absorb iron needed to make red blood cells; found to reduce “bad” LDL and raise “good” HDL cholesterol, helping to prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease; may lower high blood pressure; reduces susceptibility to allergens; helps expel toxins and heavy metals from the body; may help women suffering from non-specific vaginitis (infection or inflammation of the vagina).


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin C is essential for the synthesis of collagen. Shortage of vitamin C leads to scurvy, where the body stops making collagen and so falls apart – joints fail due to breakdown of cartilage and tendons, blood vessels break open, gums ulcerate and teeth fall out, the immune system deteriorates, and the person dies. Other vitamin deficiency symptoms may include :: easy bruising and small spots of bleeding under the skin (which appear as pink spots on the skin); swollen or painful joints or bones; slow-healing wounds and fractures; nosebleeds; spongy, swollen, bleeding gums and loose teeth; teeth decay easily; dry brittle hair; dry rough scaly skin; anemia; fatigue or lethargy or muscle weakness; loss of appetite; recurrent colds and infections; atherosclerosis; possible weight gain due to slower metabolism.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin C are guava; lychees / litchis; papayas; strawberries; vegetables like broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, kale, mustard greens, bell peppers, turnip greens, spinach.

Other Vitamin C food sources include berries such as blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, blackcurrants; citrus fruit such as grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangerines; fruits such as cantaloupe, kiwifruit, mangos, melons, persimmons, pineapple; onions; herbs such as fennel, parsley, peppermint; rose hips; radishes, turnips, potatoes and sweet potatoes (baked with skin); vegetables like asparagus, beet greens, chard, garden cress, green peas, lettuce, tomatoes, winter squash, zucchini.

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Vitamin D | Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) | Vitamin D3 (Cholecacliferol) | Vitamin D Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin D
Functions :: main role of vitamin D is to maintain the right level of calcium in blood; promotes adequate levels and use of calcium and phosphorus to ensure healthy skeletal growth and development of bones and teeth; builds bone density to prevent osteoporosis and bone fractures; prevents and treats rickets and osteomalacia; may be needed for normal brain cell growth; may slow age-related decline in mental agility; stimulates production of insulin which is needed to handle blood sugars; protects against high blood pressure; recent research suggests vitamin D may protect against cancer and heart disease; research also indicates ability to regulate inflammatory response and prevent autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, psoriaris, and irritable bowel diseases; long-term supplementation may decrease risk of multiple sclerosis.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to impair proper function of insulin- producing cells possibly leading to type 2 diabetes. Studies also suggest a link between lack of vitamin D in early life with later onset of type 1 diabetes. Other vitamin deficiency symptoms may include :: rickets which causes soft bones, skeletal deformities or retarded growth in children; osteomalacia resulting in muscular weakness and soft bones; muscle or bone pain (including low back pain); frequent bone fractures; osteoporosis; higher risk of periodontal disease in adults over 50 years old; rheumatoid arthritis; increased risk of diabetes due to insufficient insulin produced; increased risk of high blood pressure; hypocalcemia (low blood calcium level) characterized by muscle cramps, twitching nerves or muscles, numbness and tingling of fingers and toes, irregular heart contractions, and irritability.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin D are fish liver oils; mackerel; salmon, especially sockeye salmon; sardine; shrimp.

Other Vitamin D food sources include alfalfa; animal liver; egg yolk; milk fortified with vitamin D; oatmeal; fatty salt-water fish like cod, halibut, tuna; sweet potatoes.

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Vitamin E | Tocopherol | Tocotrienols | Vitamin E Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin E
Functions :: powerful antioxidant that neutralizes the free radicals that cause tissue and cell damage; acts as an antioxidant to delay degenerative diseases; decreases the risk of some cancers such as prostate and bladder cancer; slows cellular aging due to oxidation (anti-aging); boosts the body's immune system function; works in synergy with vitamin A to protect lungs from pollution; helps protect skin from ultraviolet radiation and sun damage, and lowers the risk of skin cancer; may delay or lower risk of cataracts or age-related macular degeneration (AMD); may help prevent or retard brain decline or neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease; helps lower blood pressure and protect against atherosclerosis and heart disease; important for red blood cell formation; important for fertility and reproduction.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Severe vitamin E deficiency is rare. Vitamin deficiency symptoms may include :: loss of appetite; nausea; anemia due to loss of red blood cells; weak immune system; eye problems such as cataracts or degeneration of the retina; angina (severe chest pains) in males; weakness in muscles and limbs, and sometimes muscle cramps, stiffness or spasms; damage to nerves characterized by numbness and tingling or burning sensations in the arms, legs, hands or feet; lack of coordination of muscle movements characterized by jerkiness, clumsiness or instability; digestive tract problems such as liver or gallbladder disorders that result in poor absorption of food; miscarriages, uterine or testicular deterioration, decreased fertility.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin E are cold-pressed vegetable oils (such as sunflower, soybean, safflower); wheat germ oil; dark green leafy vegetables such as chard, mustard greens, spinach, turnip greens.

Other Vitamin E food sources include avocadoes; blueberries; brown rice; dried beans; egg yolk; kiwifruit; legumes; nuts and seeds (almonds, sunflower seeds, macadamia, hazelnuts, peanuts); oatmeal; organ meats like liver; olives; papaya; soybeans; sweet potatoes; vegetables like asparagus, bell pepper, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, kale, parsley, tomato; wheat germ; whole grains and whole grain products.

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Vitamin K | Phylloquinone | Menaquinone | Vitamin K Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin K
Functions :: regulates normal clotting of blood and prevents excessive blood loss from injuries; acts as an antioxidant to neutralize harmful free radicals that damage cell membranes; needed for formation of cartilage, bone and dentine; decreases calcium loss and helps maintain bone mass; helps prevent and treat osteoporosis.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin K deficiency symptoms may include :: bruise or bleed easily, such as from a wound, the nose or stomach or intestine, causing blood to be vomited or appear in the stool or urine; blood takes longer to clot than normal; osteoporosis or low bone mineral density; bones fracture easily.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin K are soybeans; vegetables, especially dark green leafy vegetables, like asparagus, beet greens, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, green cabbage, cauliflower, chard, collard greens, garden cress, kale, lettuce, mustard greens, romaine lettuce, spinach, turnip greens, watercress.

Other Vitamin K food sources include alfalfa; animal liver; carrots; egg yolk; garbanzo beans; green beans and peas; cereals (oats, oatmeal, rye, wheat); safflower oil.

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Vitamin P | Bioflavonoids | Hesperetin | Hesperidin | Eriodictyol | Quercetin | Quercetrin | Rutin | Vitamin P Details

Importance & Benefits of Vitamin P
Functions :: most flavonoids are powerful antioxidants that help neutralize harmful free radicals and prevent them from damaging cells and DNA; enhances the effects of other antioxidants, including glutathione, an important and powerful antioxidant; enhances the effectiveness of vitamin C; works with vitamin C to reduce bleeding, bruising and nosebleeds; clinically proven in treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins; works with vitamin C to alleviate oral herpes; for cold sores, try taking 1000mg of vitamin C with 1000 mg of bioflavonoids, then reduce to 500 mg of each, 3 times a day; may help prevent and treat cataracts; stimulates bile production; helps relieve sports injuries such as pain, bumps, bruises; helpful for relieving leg and back pains; has anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory properties; protects against cancer by inhibiting tumour growth; reduces risk of cardiovascular disease and heart attack by helping to lower LDL cholesterol level and protect against atherosclerosis; lowers high blood pressure and risk of stroke and heart disease; quercetin taken with bromelin may help asthma and other allergies.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
A diet rich in fruits and vegetables would provide enough bioflavonoids. Vitamin deficiency symptom :: easy bruising; excessive swelling after injury, such as sports injuries; frequent nose bleeds; hemorrhoids or varicose veins; weak immune system, resulting in frequent colds or infections.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Vitamin P are white material just beneath the peel of citrus fruits; celery; garlic; red onions; broccoli.

Other Vitamin P food sources include buckwheat; dry beans such as red beans, black beans, pinto beans; fruits such as blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, apples, apricots, blackcurrants, cherries, grapefruit, grapes, guavas, lemons, oranges, papaya, pears, prunes; herbs such as bilberry, hawthorn, ginkgo, licorice, pine bark, rose hips, yarrow and milk thistle; green tea; red wine; parsley; peppers; romaine lettuce; tomatoes; brassica (or crucifer) vegetables such as Brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, cress, kale, kohlrabi, mustard greens, pak choi, swedes, turnips.

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Biotin | Biotin Details

Importance & Benefits of Biotin
Functions :: promotes healthy skin through proper fat production; needed for healthy hair and nails; helps treat seborrheic dermatitis; prevents hair loss in some men, and is used to treat some forms of baldness; needed for DNA replication and cell division and growth; needed for healthy sweat glands, nerve tissue and bone marrow; needed for synthesis of fatty acids; important for metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats for energy; helps regulate blood sugar level; improves glucose tolerance and benefits patients with Type II diabetes; decreases triglyceride levels; may lower LDL cholesterol level and risk of atherosclerosis when used with chromium; helps prevent intestinal disorders like Crohn's disease and inflammatory or irritable bowel disorders; assists the utilization of the other B-complex vitamins.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
A deficiency of biotin is rare because it can be produced in the intestines from food. Vitamin deficiency symptoms may include :: brittle nails and hair; one of the most obvious signs of insufficient biotin is thinning of hair which may lead to total hair loss (alopecia); dry scaly scalp or face, especially in infants (cradle crap), and in adults in various parts of the body (seborrheic dermatitis); mental depression; insomnia; intestinal tract symptoms like loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting; fatigue or extreme exhaustion due to impaired energy production; muscle pain or cramps related to physical exertion; nervo-muscular symptoms like seizures, numbness and tingling of extremities, and movements characterized by lack of muscle tone and coordination.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Biotin are organ meats such as liver; carrots; romaine lettuce; swiss chard; tomatoes.

Other Biotin food sources include almonds; raspberries and strawberries; cooked egg yolk; dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt); oats; poultry; salt-water fish like halibut; soybeans; walnuts; vegetables like cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, onions; whole grains; yeast.

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Choline | Choline Details

Importance & Benefits of Choline
Functions :: constituent of lecithin, a key building block of cell membranes, important for cell formation and growth; needed for proper functioning of the cell membranes; needed for production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is vital for brain and nerve function; essential for optimal brain functioning, learning and memory; needed for nerve-muscle transmission; may help nervous system disorders like Parkinson's disease; regulates the gallbladder and helps prevent gallstones; regulates liver function, and is beneficial for liver damage related to hepatitis and cirrhosis; for fat and cholesterol transport and metabolism as an energy source; natural lipotropic agent that minimizes excess fat in the liver; lowers blood homocysteine levels, which helps prevent cardiovascular problems; works with betaine to reduce chronic inflammation that is linked to disorders such as osteoporosis, diabetes and Alzheimer's.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Choline deficiency symptoms may include :: impaired fat metabolism and transport, which is symptomized by decreased blood levels of VLDL that the liver uses to transport fats; fatty build-up in the liver, which may lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, or fatty degeneration; raised levels of cholesterol or triglycerides; high blood pressure (hypertension); high levels of homocysteine in blood, leading to risk of heart disease and other cardiovascular and circulatory problems; respiratory distress in newborns or nerve degeneration or nerve-muscle imbalances due to insufficient acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that cannot be made without choline; anemia, as red blood cell formation needs phosphatidylcholine which cannot be made without choline; kidney hemorrhage or kidneys unable to concentrate urine; abnormal bone formation; impaired growth in newborns; fatigue; insomnia; infertility; impaired memory or brain function or senile dementia (shortage of acetylcholine in the brain has been associated with Alzheimer's).


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Choline are egg yolk; lecithin (usually derived from soybeans); soybeans and soybean products.

Other Choline food sources include banana; butter; organ meats like calf liver and heart; cauliflower; flax seed; legumes; milk; oranges; peanuts and peanut butter; potatoes; sesame seeds; tomatoes; whole grain cereals such as barley, corn, oats, whole wheat.

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Folic Acid | Folate | Folacin | Folic Acid Details

Importance & Benefits of Folic Acid
Functions :: important for lowering risk of heart attacks and strokes by preventing build-up of homocysteine in the blood; lowers homocysteine level which decreases risk of dementias and osteoporosis related bone fractures; considered a brain food; involved in production of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin that regulate the brain in areas like appetite, mood, sleep; needed for energy production; needed for metabolism of amino acids and synthesis of proteins; important for DNA replication and healthy cell growth and function; especially critical during stages of rapid cell replication and growth; essential for proper development of the fetus during pregnancy and protects against birth defects; important in red blood cell formation and to prevent anemia; promotes healthy skin and nails; protects the linings in body cavities like the mouth and intestinal tract; supplements may be used to treat ulcers of the leg; preliminary studies suggest that folate may help prevent breast, cervical and pancreatic cancer; may improve symptoms of vitiligo (loss of skin pigment) when used with vitamin B12.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Folic acid deficiency symptoms may include :: megaloblastic macrocytic anemia characterized by breathlessness, heart palpitation, insomnia, irritability, forgetfulness, lethargy, stomach disorders, pallor and sensitivity to cold; chronic muscular fatigue or general weakness; affects production of neurotransmitters, leading to symptoms of irritability, hostility, non-senile dementia, confusion, insomnia, mental fatigue, depression, and nervous system problems of the hands and legs; skin disorders like seborrheic dermatitis and vitiligo (loss of pigment leading to white patches on the skin); gastrointestinal tract problems like periodontal disease, gingivitis, mouth and peptic ulcers, and digestive upsets; swollen or sore or smooth red tongue (glossitis); cervical dysplasia, leading to greater risk of cervical cancer from factors such as smoking and HPV infection; premature grey hair; higher blood levels of homocysteine and risk of heart disease; deficiency can slow overall growth rate of infants and children; low birth weight or premature infants, and neural tube defects resulting in severe brain or neurological damage of the fetus.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Folic Acid are organ meat like animal liver or kidney; legumes (peas and dried beans such as adzuki beans, black beans, cranberry beans, chickpeas or garbanzo beans, dal, kidney beans, lentils, mung beans, navy beans, pinto beans); dark-green leafy vegetables including asparagus, beets, broccoli, collard greens, cauliflower, mustard greens, parsley, romaine lettuce, spinach, turnip greens.

Other Folic Acid food sources include avocadoes; bananas; cantaloupe; citrus fruits like oranges and lemons; dates; egg; nuts; papaya; poultry and pork; root vegetables like okra; salmon; shellfish; tuna; wheat bran; wheat germ; whole grains like brown rice and whole wheat; yeast; vegetables such as cabbage, green peas, leeks, red bell peppers, squash, string beans, tomatoes.

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Inositol | Inositol Details

Importance & Benefits of Inositol
Functions :: important in fat and cholesterol metabolism; mild lipotropic agent that removes fats from the liver and lowers blood cholesterol; found to improve fertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, with weight loss and increased HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels; used to help prevent plaque build-up and arteriosclerosis; needed for hair growth and strong healthy hair; helps maintain healthy skin; has been used to prevent and treat eczema; considered a brain food as it helps nourish the brain; needed for formation of lecithin, a key building block of cell membranes that protects cells from oxidation and forms the protective sheath around the brain; essential component of myelin that coats nerves and regulates nerve transmission; has helped improve nerve function in diabetics; has a calming effect and may help treat depression, panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Inositol deficiency symptoms may include :: eye abnormalities; hair loss or alopecia or patchy baldness; memory loss; eczema; constipation; higher cholesterol level; liver excess fat; hardening and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis); lower levels of inositol have been found in the nerves of people with multiple sclerosis and diabetic nerve disorders.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Inositol are cereals with high bran content; lecithin; fruits especially bananas, citrus fruit like oranges and grapefruit (except lemons) and cantaloupes; green leafy vegetables.

Other Inositol food sources include beans like red beans and kidney beans; brewer's yeast; brown rice; cabbage; liver; unrefined molasses; nuts; oat flakes; raisins; wheat germ; whole grains.

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PABA | Para-Amino-Benzoic Acid | PABA Details

Importance & Benefits of PABA
Functions :: helps in the utilization of pantothenic acid; important for healthy skin and hair pigment; may restore grey hair to original color when used with inositol, folic acid and pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), if greying was due to stress or deficiency in the B vitamins; has been used, together with biotin, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and sometimes vitamin E, to restore hair; early studies show may help treat vitiligo (loss of color or pigmentation in some areas of skin); may prevent accumulation of abnormal fibrous tissue; assists formation of red blood cells; acts as a coenzyme in the metabolism and utilization of protein; helps maintain intestinal flora.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
PABA deficiency symptoms may include :: constipation and other chronic gastro-intestinal disorders; nervousness; frequent headaches; general fatigue; depression; irritability; weeping or moist eczema; premature wrinkling of skin; premature grey hair.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in PABA are brewer's yeast; molasses; organ meats like animal liver and kidney; wheat germ.

Other PABA food sources include bran; mushrooms; spinach; whole grains (such as brown rice and whole wheat).

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Coenzyme Q10 | Ubiquinone | CoQ10 | Coenzyme Q10 Details

Importance & Benefits of Coenzyme Q10
Functions :: vital for normal cell growth, and basic functioning of every cell; powerful antioxidant; vital for effectiveness of the immune system and anti-aging; works with, and protects vitamin E in the body from damage; helps prevent and treat cancer, and decreases rate of recurrence; may reduce side effects of chemotherapy; some data supports its use in treatment of kidney or renal failure; may lower and stabilize blood sugar; shown to improve heart function, mobility, and quality of life in muscular dystrophy patients; widely used in cases of heart disease and clogged heart arteries to help prevent cardiovascular disease; may help improve heart function after major heart surgery; research indicates that it lowers high blood pressure; reduces adverse side effects of beta blocker drugs used to treat high blood pressure; reduces adverse effects of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs; shown promise in helping people with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia to function better; promising results have been seen when used for Parkinson's disease; evidence that it alleviates or prevents migraine; may relieve symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome; anti-histaminine abilities helps it to alleviate allergies and asthma; used in treatment of periodontal (gum) disease; may help prevent and heal stomach and duodenal ulcers; may relieve candidiasis (yeast infection or thrush); helps increase sperm count and motility; has shown promising results in boosting well-being and life span of AIDS patients.


Vitamin Deficiency Symptoms
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency symptoms may include :: gum or periodontal disease; hypertension (high blood pressure); arteriosclerosis / atherosclerosis; heart problems like angina, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure; stomach (gastric) or duodenal ulcers; high blood sugar; kidney or renal failure; impaired immune function; higher risk of cancer.


Vitamin Food Sources
Foods high in Coenzyme Q10 are organ meats like heart, kidney, liver; migratory fish like herring, mackerel, salmon, sardines.

Other Coenzyme Q10 food sources include germ part of whole grains, eg. wheat germ; broccoli; spinach; vegetable oils like soybean, sesame, rapeseed oils.

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